HeritageA Heritage Spanning Seven Generations
A Heritage Spanning Seven Generations
Hidayat Husain belongs to the Imdadkhani-Etawah Gharana, also fondly known as Vilayatkhani Gharana, named after his father Ustad Vilayat Khan. This is one of the oldest and most illustrious gharanas of Indian Classical Music and the only linage to produced four generations of recorded music. Some of the biggest innovators of style and technique belong Hidayat’s linage.
FOUNDERS OF THE GHARANA
USTAD IMDAD KHAN: THE DOYEN
“Imdad Khan swayam gharana ban gaye hain. Ab saare Bhaaratmein lmdadkhani dhang hi chalta hai.”
Dhurjati Prosad Mukhopadhyaya–Sur our Sangati
- Riyazi–well known for chillakashi riyaz.
- Applied “Merukhand” concept to sitar riyaz and performance.
- Innovator of right hand bols–e.g. Dra.
- Highly focused musicianship–e.g. Puriya and Yaman.
- Earliest surbahar recording available.
- Court musician at Mysore, Hyderabad, Indore.
USTAD ENAYAT KHAN: THE PERFORMING MAESTRO
- Content Raga Swarup, Systematic unfoldment, Emotional content, Element of surprise.
- Expression Acoustic control, Variations in pace/speed, Decorative elements, use of silence/gaps.
- Meditative-introspective approach to music.
- Re-engineering of the instrument–physical dimensions, acoustic features/tone, and use of “taraf” strings.
- Development of a distinctive “baaj”.
- Institutionalised the role of surbahar as an integral part of a surbahar-sitar performance
- Vocal model for tan patterns
- Deployment of tihais in mukhda and amad placements
- Stroke power and inward/outward balance
- Evolution of the jhala into a sophisticated and independent movement in raga exposition
- Architect of India’s Modern Music-scape.
- Important role in elevating instrumental music to a level of parity with vocal music
- Facilitated the transition of instrumental music into the post-Dhrupad era
- Involved the aristocracy of Bengal in the cultural transition–not merely as patrons, but as disciples
- Greatest legacy–a family unmatched for its achievements in instrumental music
USTAD VILAYAT KHAN: THE INNOVATIVE MASTER
- Stylistic Contributions
- Khayalmuma inclinations
- Vertical development of musical values, in preference to the horizontal
- Full fledged introduction of Gayaki ang in all stages of performance
- Introduced Bandish-based, semi-classical, and folk, vocalised forms in repertoire
- Demonstrative singing during concert
- Physical Contributions
- Thicker tabli
- Bridge modification–jawari, height
- Metallic reinforcement of joints
- Thicker tar-gahan
- Modification of fret–metal, thickness, curvature 6 Strings–gauge, distance, tuning
- Tanpura-Sitar integration
- Revolutionised sitar sound–introduction of Gandhar string